Posted by Unknown Selasa, 31 Desember 2013 0 komentar

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Lesbianism, Lifestyle or Sexual Abnormalities?

Posted by Unknown Selasa, 24 Desember 2013 0 komentar

In Indonesia, Lesbianism apparently developed rapidly in the social area. In the past, women lesbian best to hide his true identity, but this time they come together in a container or organization that everyone can know. See, lesbian groups scattered around Facebook and other adult sites. So the question is, whether Lesbianism is currently a lifestyle? Is not an abnormality or lesbian sexual deviance? Before concluding, World of Psychology blog will be trying to look into what it is lesbianism.

Psychologist John Buss estimates that 2% of the women is a lesbian (Buss, 2004). Maybe not anymore! The latest survey of teenage girls and young women found that about nearly 15% of young women today identify themselves as lesbian, compared with about 5% of young men who identify as gay (Ritch Savin-Williams and Geoffrey L. Ream, 2007).

Researchers at Cornell University, to collect a representative sample of young women that includes more than 20,000 people in 80 communities across the United States, found that 85.1% of young women identified as heterosexual, 0.5% reported no sexual identity, and 14.4% were lesbian or bisexual. Among young men, 94.0% identified themselves as heterosexual, 0.4% of men reported no sexual identity, and 5.6% were identified as gay or bisexual.

Do not worry they will study in America. Proportion in Indonesia could be less or even higher, because of the culture (customs, environment, religion, etc.) affect research involving sexual orientation. As seen in Europe, for example, in Norway, more than 20% of girls and young women identified as lesbian (L. Wichstrøm and K. Hegna, 2003)
Lesbian and Changes in Psychological Perspective

Lesbianism is derived from the word Lesbos. Lesbos is the designation for an island amid Egeis Ocean, which in ancient times was inhabited by women (in Kartono, 1985). Homosexuality among women referred with lesbis love or lesbianism. Indeed, at the age of puberty, the individual appears predisposition (nature, tendency) bisexual, namely love of a friend's daughter, at once loving friend of a man.

Psychology is one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a phenomenon. Before and during most of the 20th century, see homosexuality as a psychological model of pathological behavior. Before the 1970s, many psychological studies concluded that homosexual behavior is abnormal. Most of the study subjects were gay men and lesbians; majority of research subjects drawn from prisons, psychiatric hospitals and consulting psychologists. This study has been criticized because the sample taken is the subject of the 'distressed', poor people, minorities lifestyle, etc., is not representative of a population.

Beginning with a protest by gay activists, aided by many psychiatric convention held in San Francisco that discusses gay rights. In the mid-1970s, there has been a significant shift in the psychology of homosexuals, who think that homosexuals and lesbians are in the range of 'normal' human behavior. The climax is a homosexual discharged from the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), or better known as the DSM-III.

Data from researchers such as Alfred Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker, and after a vote by APA committee in 1973, which was confirmed by the APA membership in 1974, concluded that homosexuality is no longer including mental disorders, but "disorder of sexual orientation (sexual orientation disturbance) ( Spitzer RL, 1981). "

In 1975, the American Psychological Association (APA) released the official policy that homosexuality is not a mental disorder (mental disorders), and mental health professionals urged to take steps to eliminate the stigma of 'mental illness' that has long been associated with gay and lesbian.
Lesbian and Sexuality

Many think of the physical if the woman is a lesbian tomboy mostly, of course not. More than 16% of heterosexual women also reported as girls become tomboys. Only 3-4% of the heterosexual men reported 'to' sissy when young. So if you called a sissy (remember it and are willing to admit it) is a stronger predictor than being homosexual is called a tomboy.

Defining both sexual activity and social identity of a lesbian until now it continues to be debated. According to feminist writer Naomi McCormick (1994), an indicator of lesbian sexual orientation is sexual experience with another woman. However, McCormick states refuse sex between women, which emphasizes the emotional connection, support, sensitivity, and idealistic closeness between women is the most important part rather than sexual intercourse. The views of the lesbian feminist (Anti-Pornography Feminism) is actually never challenged before by lesbian sexually-oriented ('Pro-Sex' Feminism) in the 1980s, known for "Sex Wars" (Duggan, Lisa and Nan D. Hunter. 2006 ).

Many of us are curious about the lesbian sexual orientation. What makes a lesbian? Not exactly known what causes someone to be gay and lesbian, but research shows that it is based on individual biological factors. Sexual orientation is usually seen started puberty. Although sexual orientation began to develop before birth, tend to change during a person's life. Naum some are considered more dominant environmental factors.

In the past, to find out the lesbian or gay person to use a measuring tool called the Kinsey Scale. Alfred Kinsey (a psychologist who helped fight for gay rights) developed the Kinsey Scale as a way to describe a person's sexual orientation. Kinsey found that many people are not exclusively gay or lesbian, but their sexual orientation can be in between. Kinsey Scale categories, among others:

0 - exclusively heterosexual
1 - predominantly heterosexual, homosexual infrequently
2 - predominantly heterosexual, but more infrequently than homosexual
3 - Equally heterosexual and homosexual (bisexual)
4 - predominantly homosexual, but more infrequently than heterosexual
5 - predominantly homosexual, heterosexual infrequently
6 - exclusively homosexual

Today, many researchers consider the Kinsey Scale is too simple. They argue that each person's sexual orientation may be more complex than the label given basic Kinsey. Every person is different and each person's sexual orientation is unique. People can choose to label their sexual orientation they want (being gay, lesbian or bisexual) and many people choose not to label at all (AntiSeks). Like most people in the western culture, which taught that heterosexuality is an innate quality in all people. When a woman is aware of sexual attraction and romantic another woman, then adopted the identity of a lesbian, challenging what society offered in stereotypes about heterosexual.

So if Lesbianism is a sexual abnormality or lifestyle? Many constructive criticism given to the World of Psychology blog while writing this article. Previously we also clarify never mentions lesbians is a mental disorder (mental disorder). For many readers, the word Sexual abnormalities may be considered the same as Mental Disorders (Mental Disorder). Though there is no intention at all to equate lesbians as a mental disorder.

We surrender completely to the reader, and that should be remembered is the fact that before concluding the lesbian into a lifestyle of women as a gender issue intensified. Accused them of sexual abnormalities are also too naive, because there has been no research lesbians in Indonesia. It could be due to the increasing number of lesbian Indonesia 'inability' of men putting women in its proper place. God bissawab.

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Motivation relationship with Behavior

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You ever watch the Golden Ways? I'm sure most readers have seen the show hosted by Mario, and not a few who become a fan of this one master motivator. Mario seemed to be able to 'hypnotize' the audience with words of wisdom. Now you may wonder why you love with the event? What is the effect and benefit to you. The answer you might want to have a better change your life today.

Well, the World of Psychology will discuss Mario, but try to give a little review of the relationship and the effect on the incidence of behavioral motivation. Why is this important? Because at any given motivation (even by Mario though) if being offset by the consistency of behavior then it will be in vain.
Motivation relationship with Behavior

Motivation is a force that is present in humans that cause, directing, and organizing behavior (Behavior). This behavior arises because of the encouragement of internal factors and external factors. The behavior is seen as a reaction or response to a stimulus.

Woodhworth (in Petri, 1981) * reveals that the behavior is due to the motivation or encouragement (drive) which directs the individual to act in accordance with the interests or objectives to be achieved. Because without prompting before there will not be a force that directs the individual to a mechanism of onset of behavior. The push is enabled by the need (need), in the sense of the need arouse encouragement, and encouragement eventually led to activate or behavioral mechanisms.

Further explained that the motivation as the cause of the emergence of the concept of behavior according to Woodworth has three (3) characteristics, namely:

   1. Intensity; concerning weak and strong encouragement causing certain individuals to behave;
   2. Giver directions; directs individuals in avoiding or perform a specific behavior;
   3. Persistency, or the tendency to repeat the behavior continuously.

In other words, if all three are weak, then the motivation will not be able to cause the behavior.

Another view put forward by Hull (in As'ad, 1995) * which asserts that a person's behavior is influenced by motivation or encouragement by holding interests fulfillment or satisfaction of the needs that exist in the individual. Further explained that the behavior does not arise solely because of the encouragement that stems from the needs of the individual, but also because of the factors studied. The boost factor is conceived as a collection of energy that can activate behavior or as a motivational factor, where the incidence of behavior according to Hull is a function of three things: the strength of the impulse is on the individual; habits were obtained from the study, as well as the interaction between the two.

Based on the above, both concepts put forward Woodhworth and Hull explains that motivation is closely related to the behavior. Motivation is a construct that starts from the need or the needs of the individual self in the form of active energy that causes a boost with a certain intensity for activating, giving directions, and making persistent (repeated) from a behavior to meet the needs of the underlying causes impulse itself. Well, for those of you Mario fans or likes to read motivational words, make sure that certain things should be fulfilled in order to change the behavior that you expect to be real.

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Seven Facts About Dreams

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You have ever dreamed of, all readers must have experienced it not? Dreams can be interesting, fun, scary or strange things that do not make sense. Why we dream is still one of the biggest questions in psychology are "unanswered", although many experts try to define your dreams, including Sigmund Freud. However, at this time continue to browse and scientists are still researching about the dream. And there are many people who make a guess about the dream, even referenced toggle number, foreboding, fortune and even disaster. Oh no .....!

Dreams can be meaningful to everyone, but there is consider as flower beds. World of Psychology will not discuss further about the theory of the dream, but the review interesting facts about dreams, curious? The following 7 interesting facts about dreams. This fact is based on the results of research on people who have a dream.

1. Every Person Ever Dreaming
Yes, every person had the name dreams, men, women and a baby, even those who claim to have never even dreamed of proven research experience in a dream. In some studies about people who claimed to have never dreamed, when done research aided measurement Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), it was found that they too had a dream. But the difficulty to remember the dream when awakened.

2. Difficult Dreams to Remember
The results of the research conducted dreams J. Allan Hobson, said as many as 95 percent of all dreams are quickly forgotten shortly after waking. Why is it difficult to remember our dreams? According to one of the results of research they will say that the changes in the brain that occur during sleep does not support the processing and storage of information required for memory formation. Brain scans of individuals who are sleeping indicates that the frontal lobes, an area that plays a key role in memory formation, are inactive during REM sleep, the stage where dreaming occurs.

3. Not all dreams have color
Do you remember your dreams? if you remember, what seems to be the color that appears in your dreams? Black and white? Red or Pink ...?? as much as 80% of all dreams have color, but few can explain the color, and only estimate the color black and white only. Most of the study subjects admitted only see soft colors / shadows in their dreams. How about you?

4. Men and women have different dreams
Researchers have found a number of differences between men and women when 'see' the content of their dreams. In one study, William Domhoff said, more men dream about aggression and masculinity. While women tend to have slightly longer dream like a story. In the dream man, 'woman' is often present and more dominant in their dreams. As for women, the percentage of the presence of both (male and female) in a dream as big.

5. Dreaming of animals as well?
Have you ever seen a cat wagging its tail while sleeping or moving the legs during sleep? Although it is difficult to say with certainty whether the beast was really dreaming, researchers believe that there is a possibility that the animals are dreaming. Just like humans, animals through the stages of sleep cycles that include sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM). In one study, the gorilla taught sign language as a communication tool. The result, gorilla "choose" an image, may indicate dreaming experience. You may believe should not ....

6. You can control the content of your dreams
In a Lucid Dream, the dreamer may be able to control and participate in the dream, dream control or manipulate the content of their imaginary experiences in the dream environment. Lucid dream, a term introduced by Frederik van Eeden, a Dutch psychiatrist said that sometimes we can control our dreams, even the 'continue' the dream for a moment when we woke up. You have ever dreamed of a beautiful but suddenly woke up? And when you want to go back to sleep once the dream continue? I believe, one of the millions of times we dream the dream sometimes really continue.

7. Negative emotions always mengiring Your Dreams
Over a period of more than forty years, researchers Calvin S. Hall collected more than 50,000 dream reports from college students. These reports were made in the 1990s and revealed that many of the emotions experienced during dreams including joy, happiness and fear. The most common emotion experienced in dreams is anxiety, and negative emotions in general are much more common than positive. How about you?

Actually there are many more interesting facts about the dream, but in the meantime the above 7 are relevant and easy to understand us all. The fact that dreams can be so many interesting interpretation is what causes many people to believe that there is meaning in our dreams

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Meaning Personality Faces Behind Someone

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Not only the shape of the face can reveal your personality and future but also whether you are in harmony with your partner. Here the character and nature of which can be revealed from your face;
1. ALIS. Can show your mindset.
• If you have thick eyebrows to the base and then dismissed at the end of the show you are very talented in starting new projects.
• eyebrows that start with a thin base and ending with the thicker end shows that talented people to follow detail.
• If you are thick eyebrows indicating the strength of intellectual
• If you have thin eyebrows thin demonstrate mental intensity.
• Form a straight brow shows that you are a good person, aesthetically but if the distance is too close to the eyes.
• If your eyebrows are too thick which means you are irritable and impatient.
• eyebrows slightly pointed ears to give the sense that you are a person who likes a friendly attitude.

2. EARS. Shows how to design your reality and how you unconsciously react to things around you.
• If your ears long it shows that you have an incredible ability to listen.
• If your ear size was then demonstrated flexibility in listening.
• But if you are short ears then showed a tendency to not only gather information but also pay attention to it seriously.
• The shape of your ears are angled into the usually means you are easy to adjust.
• While the ears are angled outward show that you hesitate to follow the rules of society.
• For your ears are located higher than your eyebrow then showed that people who want high achievers.

3. NOSE. Shows how you manage money and what makes you different as a worker.
• Short Nose talent show hard work.
• Long Nose demonstrate the skills of planning and special strategies.
• straight nose shows systematic.
• Curved Nose reveals creativity.
• Nose knobbly show your work back and forth.
• Big nose showed the ability to make money.
• If the nostril is more closed than open, the more likely people maintain wealth.

4. MOUTH. Reflects expression of self.
• The full lips, make smart conversation so wide open and could reveal something embarrassing.
• The lips are thin show that you are smarter in personal secrets.
• short lips can show that you are more like a one-way conversation.
• You have a long lips then shows that the ability to speak with many people.
• If you have full lips and big ear lobe may indicate that you are a very sensual person.
• thin upper lip showed less affection while the lower lip fuller showed accept the challenge.

5. Chin and JAW. Together or separately can reveal ethic, ability to make decisions and how to resolve conflicts.
• Wide jaw can show that you tend to be more physical than mental. Vice versa if you narrow jaw. While high forehead indicates thinkers while rounded forehead showed idealistic.
• Be careful, it helps you to be careful with people who have a protruding upper lip to the top of the lower lip, especially if a thin upper lip. Because such a person is likely to have the property looking for prey.
• You should also be careful with people who have a tremendous berhidup face taper and decline, barely visible lips, small eyes and high cheek bones with a little meat. Because people who have this face shape has a cruel nature.
Believe it or not these articles, there is a theory that the name Lombrosso theory, which fall into the category of criminal theories. The theory states that form the structure of a person's face reflects his personality.

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